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PRACTICAL  ORGANIC  CHEMISTRY

is then passed through for six to twelve hours, .and the retort
occasionally weighed, until the increase in weight (50 grains)
roughly corresponds to the formation of monochloracetic acicl.
The operation is then stopped. The action of the chlorine is
greatly facilitated by sunlight. The yellow liquid in the retort
is decanted from the sulphur into a distilling flask, and distilled
over wire-gauze. Some acetyl chloride, sulphur chloride, and
unchanged acetic acid first distil, after which the temperature

FIG. 62.
rises and the fraction boiling at 150°—190° is collected separately.
It is advisable to run the water out of the condenser when the
temperature approaches 170°, as the acid may solidify and bloclc
the condenser-tube. The distillate solidifies on cooling-. Any
liquid is drained off at once, and the solid is redistilled and col-
lected at i So0—190°. It is nearly pure chloracetic acid, Yield
80—100 grams.
CH3.CO.OH + CIa = CH2C1.CO.OH + HC1.
The sulphur acts as a "chlorine carrier" by forming sulphur
chloride.
Properties.—Colourless crystals ; m. p. 63°; b. p. 185°—187° ;
readily soluble  in  water,-and  deliquescent  in  moist  air.    It
causes blisters on the skin.    See Appendix, p. 252.